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Antidots and emergency Treatment-Table

Sr. No.Name of ChemicalTreatment / Antidotes
1. AcidsIngestion: Give the person half to one glass of milk/water within 30 minutes of ingestion. Antacids like Aluminium hydroxide or milk of Magnesia. Do not induce vomiting.Dermal/Eye exposure: Wash with plenty ofwater or saline for 15-20 minutesInhalation: Move to fresh air. 100% oxygen.Complete rest for 24-48 hours.Note: Do not use alkali to neutralize acid
2. AcetonitrileCyanide antidotes: Due to delayed toxicity, repeated doses of Cyanide antidotes may be needed for acetonitrile poisoningirrespective of route of exposure.(For cyanide antidotes see below)
3. Acrylonitrile 1. Cyanide antidotes and
2. N-acetyl cysteine should be administered in by I/V route as follows150 mg/kg in 200 ml of 5% Dextrose over 60 min,then 50 mg/kg in 500 ml of 5% Dextroseover 4 hrthen 100 mg/kg in 1 L of 5% Dextrose over16 hr
4. AlkaliIngestion: Give the person half to one glass of milk/water.Do not induce vomitingDermal/Eye exposure: Wash with plenty of water or saline for 15-20 minutesInhalation: Supportive treatmentNote: Do not use acid to neutralize alkali
5. AmmoniaInhalation: Move the person to fresh air Dermal/Eye exposure: Wash with plenty of water or saline for 15-20 minutes Ingestion: Give the person half to one glass of milk/water. Do not induce vomiting
6. Aniline, Nitrobenzene, Toluidine and other dye intermediatesCyanosis occurs when methemoglobin levels exceed 15%. Give 1-2 mg/kg of 1% Methylene blue I/V slowly over a period of five minutes. Repeat doses of methylene blue may be needed . Do not exceed total dose of 7 mg/kg.
7. AntimonyA. Treatment is primarily symptomatic. There are no specific antidotes, but DMSA, D-penicillamine, BAL, and DMPS (Unithiol) have been used as chelating agents. Metallic antimony is not highly toxic and usually only causes gastrointestinal effects. Various salt forms may cause significantly more irritation, and stibine is a highly toxic, hemolytic gas.
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